Besides the CoGe Seminar you may also be interested in the Geometry Seminar of the Rényi Institute.

2019 March 17

Spring break

2020 March 10

Abstract: The (usual) crossing number of a graph is the minimum number of edge crossings over all drawings. We compare some different versions of this parameter and show some results about their relationships.

Bibliogaphy:

Removing even crossings, pdf

Thirteen Problems on Crossing Numbers, pdf

On the Pair-Crossing Number, pdf

Note on the Pair-crossing Number and the Odd-crossing Number, pdf

A better bound for the pair-crossing number, pdf

Decidability of string graphs, pdf

2020 March 3

Abstract: How long a monotone path can one always find in any edge-ordering of the complete graph \(K_n\)? This question was first asked by Chvátal and Komlós in 1971. It seems to have interesting applications to geometry - for instance, it can be translated into a problem about non-crossing paths in certain geometric graphs. The prevailing conjecture is that one can always find a monotone path of linear length, but the best known lower bound is \(n^{1 - o(1)}\).

Bibliogaphy:

Matija Bucic, Matthew Kwan, Alexey Pokrovskiy, Benny Sudakov, Tuan Tran, Adam Zsolt Wagner: Nearly-linear monotone paths in edge-ordered graphs, arXiv.

2020 February 25

Abstract: For every positive integer n, we construct a Hasse diagram with n vertices and chromatic number \(\Omega(n^{1/4})\), which significantly improves on the previously known best constructions of Hasse diagrams having chromatic number \(\Theta(\log n)\), but still leaves a significant gap, as the best upper bound is \(\tilde\Omega(n^{1/2})\). The proof uses a simple statement from the theory of forbidden matrix patterns. Is it possible to extend the lower bound for 2-dimensional posets, i.e., for Delaunay graphs of rectangles?

Bibliogaphy:

Andrew Suk, István Tomon: Hasse diagrams with large chromatic number, arXiv.

2020 February 18

Abstract: Teramoto et al. [Inserting points uniformly at every instance. IEICE Transactions, 2006.] defined a spatial uniformity measure of a finite point set in a unit square in \(\mathbb{R}^2\) called gap ratio. We generalize the definition of this measure over all metric spaces. The generalized definition is basically a ratio between the covering radius and the packing radius of points in the given metric space. A uniform distribution of points according to this measure gives a thin covering and a tight packing i.e., low gap ratio. This gives rise to the question of sampling points while minimising the gap ratio. We solve optimization related questions about selecting uniform point samples from metric spaces, which may be continuous or discrete. In the optimization framework, we study

- lower bounds on gap ratio for different metric spaces;

- hardness results;

- approximation algorithms and hardness of approximation results;

- existence of core sets for both the static and streaming point set.

Bibliogaphy:

Arijit Bishnu, Sameer Desai, Arijit Ghosh, Mayank Goswami, Subhabrata Paul: Uniformity of point samples in metric spaces using gap ratio, arXiv.

2019 December 4

Abstract: A family of closed simple (i.e., Jordan) curves is \(m\)-intersecting if any pair of its curves have
at most \(m \) points of common intersection. We say that a pair of such curves {\it touch} if they intersect
at a single point of common tangency. We show that any \( m \) -intersecting family of \( n \) curves in general
position in the plane contains \( O\left(n^{2-\frac{1}{3m+15}}\right) \) touching pairs (A family of Jordan curves
is in general position if no three of its curves pass through the same point, and no two of them overlap. The constant
of proportionality with the \( O(\cdot) \) -notation may depend on \( m\)).

Furthermore, we use the string separator theorem of Fox and Pach in order to establish the following Crossing Lemma for
contact graphs of Jordan curves: Let \( \Gamma \) be an \( m\)-intersecting family of closed Jordan curves in general
position in the plane with exactly \( T=\Omega(n) \) touching pairs of curves, then the curves of \( \Gamma\) determine
\( \Omega\left(T\cdot\left(\frac{T}{n}\right)^{\frac{1}{9m+45}}\right)\) intersection points.

Bibliogaphy:

Maya Bechler-Speicher: A Crossing Lemma for Families of Jordan Curves with a Bounded Intersection Number
, arXiv.

2019 November 27

Abstract: We study the growth of \(r_k\), the k-th Radon number, in convexity spaces. If \(r_2\) is finite, we present an improved upper bound on r_k. We also investigate Eckhoff's conjecture on the growth of r_k, which has been proven to be true when \(r_2 = 3\). However, when \(r_2 = 4\), we construct a family of convexity spaces where Echkoff's conjecture fails.

Bibliogaphy:

B. Bukh: Radon partitions in convexity spaces
, arXiv.

2019 November 20

Abstract: We consider intersection hypergraphs defined on a finite family S of n (possibly intersecting) axis-parallel
segments by a finite family of pairwise disjoint curves C such that every curve has an endpoint which lies in the same
connected region of \(\mathbb{R}^2\setminus S\). We call such a family of curves grounded. We show that such a hypergraph
has at most \(O(n)\) hyperedges of size 2. We further show, using a general framework, how this implies further properties
of such a hypergraph: it has \(O(k^c n)\) hyperedges of size at most \(k\) and can be properly colored with \(O(1)\) colors.
These results imply respective results about intersection hypergraphs defined on a finite family of grounded L-shapes by another
finite family of grounded L-shapes (an L-shape is grounded if its top endpoint lies on the \(x\)-axis), improving a recent result
of Keller, Rok and Smorodinsky.

Joint work with Eyal Ackerman and Dömötör Pálvölgyi.

2019 November 13

Abstract: We define an abstraction of convex sets, called convexity space, and show that if the natural generaliation of Radon's theorem holds, then so does the Tverberg theorem, Helly's theorem, the colorful Helly theorem, the fractional Helly theorem, and thus there are also weak eps-nets. We also study the so-called Eckhoff's conjecture about the growth rate of \(r_k\), the \(k\)-th partition number aka \(k\)-th Radon number aka \(k\)-th Tverberg number.

Bibliogaphy:

N. Alon, G. Kalai, J. Matoušek, and R. Meshulam, Transversal Numbers for Hypergraphs Arising in Geometry.
, Advances in Applied Mathematics 29: 79-101 (2002).

J. Eckhoff, The partition conjecture
, Discrete Mathematics 221: 61-78 (2000).

A. F. Holmsen and Dong-Gyu Lee: Radon numbers and the fractional Helly theorem
, arXiv.

B. Bukh: Radon partitions in convexity spaces
, arXiv.

A. F. Holmsen: Large cliques in hypergraphs with forbidden substructures
, arXiv.

2019 November 6

Abstract: We define an abstraction of convex sets, called convexity space, and show that if the natural generaliation of Radon's theorem holds, then so does the Tverberg theorem, Helly's theorem, the colorful Helly theorem, the fractional Helly theorem, and thus there are also weak eps-nets. We also study the so-called Eckhoff's conjecture about the growth rate of \(r_k\), the \(k\)-th partition number aka \(k\)-th Radon number aka \(k\)-th Tverberg number.

Bibliogaphy:

N. Alon, G. Kalai, J. Matoušek, and R. Meshulam, Transversal Numbers for Hypergraphs Arising in Geometry.
, Advances in Applied Mathematics 29: 79-101 (2002).

J. Eckhoff, The partition conjecture
, Discrete Mathematics 221: 61-78 (2000).

A. F. Holmsen and Dong-Gyu Lee: Radon numbers and the fractional Helly theorem
, arXiv.

B. Bukh: Radon partitions in convexity spaces
, arXiv.

A. F. Holmsen: Large cliques in hypergraphs with forbidden substructures
, arXiv.

2019 October 30

Fall break

2019 October 23

National holiday

2019 October 16

Gábor Tardos at Academy

2019 October 9

Abstract: We prove some natural generalizations of well known Ramsey-type results for abstract graphs, for graphs drawn in the plane. An example: It is well known that for every graph G, either G or its complement is connected. So, G or its complement contains a spanning tree. We show that every geometric graph (graph drawn with straight line segments as edges) or its complement contains a NONCROSSING spanning tree.

Bibliography:

G. Károlyi, J. Pach, G. Tóth: Ramsey-Type Results for Geometric Graphs, I
, Discrete and Computational Geometry 18 (1997), 247-255. Also in: Proceedings of the 12th Annual ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry 1996, 359-365.

G. Károlyi, J. Pach, G. Tóth, P. Valtr: Ramsey-Type Results for Geometric Graphs. II
, Discrete and Computational Geometry 20 (1998), 375-388. Also in: Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry 1997, 94-103.

J. Pach, J. Solymosi, G. Tóth: Unavoidable configurations in complete topological graphs
, Discrete and Computational Geometry 30 (2003), 311-320. Also in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1984 Springer-Verlag, 2001, 328-337.

2019 October 2

Abstract: Given n points in the plane they determine n choose 2 distances between them. But these distances are highly dependent, usually 2n-3 of them determines the rest. Distance geometry's goal in general is to gain information on which sets of distances can be realized by a set of points. Many questions from discrete geometry fit into this area. (Chromatic number of the plane, Harborth conjecture, integral point sets...) I will introduce the basic questions and results from these topics and then I will present a selection of nice open problems.

Bibliogaphy: List of problems

2019 September 25

Abstract: We present algorithms for the \((1+\epsilon)\)-approximate version of the closest vector problem for certain norms. The currently fastest algorithm (Dadush and Kun 2016) for general norms has running time \(2^{O(n)} (1/\epsilon)^n\). We improve this substantially for convex bodies whose modulus of smoothness, a quantity expressing how well tangent hyperplanes approximate the boundary, is well bounded. This is the case for unit balls of \(\ell_p\) spaces. Joint work with Moritz Venzin.

Bibliography:

Márton Naszódi, Moritz Venzin: Covering convex bodies and the Closest Vector Problem

2019 September 18

Abstract: Neumann-Lara and Urrutia posed the following question: for an integer n, what is the maximal number such that for any set S of n points in the plane we can always find two points p and q in S such that all circles passing through them enclose that many points. We examine some variants of this problem and show that for all sets we can find two points such that all circles passing through them enclose at most \(\left\lfloor 2n-3\over 3\right\rfloor\) points. We also show that for any 2-coloured point set with n red and n blue points, we can find two points of different colours such that every circle passing through them encloses at least \(n\left(1-{1\over\sqrt{2}}\right)-o(n)\) points from the set. The proofs use higher order Voronoi diagrams.

Bibliography:

Mercè Claverol, Clemens Huemer, Alejandra Martínez-Moraian: On circles enclosing many points

2019 May 15
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Péter Ágoston: Unit distance graphs, (1,d)-graphs and their application in the Hadwiger-Nelson problem and related problems
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2019 May 8
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Balázs Keszegh: Hamiltonicity for convex shape Delaunay and Gabriel graphs
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2019 May 1
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Narmada Varadarajan: Polychromatic colorings of bottomless rectangles
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2019 April 17
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Sándor Kisfaludi-Bak (TU Eindhoven): How does object fatness impact the complexity of packing in Euclidean space?
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Eyal Ackerman (Haifa): On Partitions of Two-Dimensional Discrete Boxes
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2019 April 3
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Dömötör Pálvölgyi: Planar Ramsey graphs
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2019 March 20
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Csaba D. Tóth (CSUN): Convex Polygons in Cartesian Products
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2019 March 13
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Gábor Damásdi: Triangle areas determined by arrangements of planar lines
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2019 March 6
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Géza Tóth: Geometric graphs without many disjoint edges
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2019 February 27

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Dömötör Pálvölgyi: Lower bounds for weak epsilon-nets and stair-convexity
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Abstract: In 2018, Aubrey de Grey proved that (the graph of the unit distances on) the plane is not 4-colourable, improving the lower bound for the Hadwiger-Nelson problem. His solution used computer assistance, so a Polymath Project was launched to find a simpler proof for the bound and possibly other related results. One of the ideas was to randomize a hypothetical 4-colouring of the plane and then give estimates to the probabilities for certain distances being monochromatic. We will summarize recent results in and around this project.

2019 May 8

Abstract: We study Hamiltonicity for some of the most general variants of Delaunay and Gabriel graphs.Let S be a point set in the plane. The k-order Delaunay graph of S, denoted k-DGC(S), has vertex set S and edge pq provided that there exists some homothet of C with p and q on its boundary and containing at most k points of S different from p and q. The k-order Gabriel graphk-GGC(S) is defined analogously, except for the fact that the homothets considered are restricted to be smallest homothets of C with p and q on its boundary. We provide upper bounds on the minimum value of k for which k-GGC(S) is Hamiltonian.

Bibliography:

Prosenjit Bose, Pilar Cano, Maria Saumell, and Rodrigo I.Silveira: Hamiltonicity for convex shape Delaunay and Gabriel graphs

2019 May 1

Labor day

2019 April 24Abstract: Given a finite family of bottomless rectangles in the plane, let \(m^*(k)\) be the least integer so that there is a \(k\)-coloring of the rectangles with the property that any point contained in \(m^*(k)\) rectangles is covered by all \(k\) colors. We construct algorithms to \(k\)-color certain configurations with \(m^*(k)\) linear, and give an improved lower bound for \(m^*(k)\) for general families.

2019 April 17

Spring Break

2019 April 10Abstract: We consider the following packing problem in Euclidean space: given a set of ball-like (i.e., fat) objects, find the largest subset of pairwise non-intersecting objects among them. We briefly discuss some related separator theorems and algorithms. It turns out that one can give progressively faster algorithms the more fat the underlying objects are. Then we turn to lower bounds to explain why object fatness is so crucial. We show how certain wiring constructions in grids can be used for gaining lower bounds for packing problems with fat objects. We present the so-called Cube Wiring Theorem: using an elementary construction, we show that any graph on m edges is a minor of the k x k x k grid, where \(k=O(m^{1/2}\)). Finally, we show how Cube Wiring extends to blown-up grids (replacing each grid point by a clique), and use this extension to get a lower bound for the packing of "skinny" axis-parallel boxes. The talk is based on joint work with M. de Berg, H.L. Bodlaender, D. Marx and T.C. van der Zanden.

Bibliography:

M. de Berg, H.L. Bodlaender, S. Kisfaludi-Bak, D. Marx and T.C. van der Zanden: A Framework for ETH-Tight Algorithms and Lower Bounds in Geometric Intersection Graphs
, arXiv.

Let \(A\) and \(B\) be finite sets and consider a partition of the \emph{discrete box} \(A \times B\) into \emph{sub-boxes} of the form \(A' \times B'\) where \(A' \subset A\) and \(B' \subset B\). We say that such a partition has the \((k,\ell)\)-piercing property for positive integers \(k\) and \(\ell\) if every \emph{line} of the form \(\{a\} \times B\) intersects at least \(k\) sub-boxes and every line of the form \(A \times \{b\}\) intersects at least \(\ell\) sub-boxes. We show that a partition of \(A \times B\) that has the \((k, \ell)\)-piercing property must consist of at least \((k-1)+(\ell-1)+\left\lceil 2\sqrt{(k-1)(\ell-1)} \right\rceil\) sub-boxes. This bound is nearly sharp (up to one additive unit) for every \(k\) and \(\ell\). As a corollary we get that the same bound holds for the minimum number of vertices of a graph whose edges can be colored red and blue such that every vertex is part of a red \(k\)-clique and a blue \(\ell\)-clique. Joint work with Rom Pinchasi.

Bibliography:

Eyal Ackerman and Rom Pinchasi, On Partitions of Two-Dimensional Discrete Boxes
, arXiv.

2019 April 3

Bolyai ülés break

2019 March 27Abstract: A graph H is planar unavoidable if there is a planar graph G such that any red/blue coloring of the edges of G contains a monochromatic copy of H. We prove that the cycle on 4 vertices and any path are planar unavoidable, and discuss related questions.

Bibliography:

Maria Axenovich, Carsten Thomassen, Ursula Schade, Torsten Ueckerdt: Planar Ramsey graphs
, arXiv.

2019 March 20

Abstract: We study several problems concerning convex polygons whose vertices lie in a Cartesian product (for short, grid) of two sets of \(n\) real numbers. We prove that every such grid contains a convex polygon with \(\Omega(\log n)\) vertices and that this bound is tight up to a constant factor. We generalize this result to \(d\) dimensions (for a fixed \(d\)), and obtain a tight lower bound of \(\Omega(\log^{d-1}n)\) for the maximum number of points in convex position in a \(d\)-dimensional grid. We also present exponential upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of convex polygons in planar grids.These bounds are tight up to polynomial factors. (Joint work with Jean-Lou De Carufel, Adrian Dumitrescu, Wouter Meulemans, Tim Ophelders, Claire Pennarun, and Sander Verdonschot.)

Bibliography:

Jean-Lou De Carufel, Adrian Dumitrescu (CS), Wouter Meulemans, Tim Ophelders, Claire Pennarun (ALGCO), Csaba Toth (CPSC), Sander Verdonschot:
Convex Polygons in Cartesian Products
, arXiv

2019 March 13

Bibliography:

Gábor Damásdi, Leonardo Martínez-Sandoval, Dániel T. Nagy, Zoltán Lóránt Nagy, Triangle areas determined by arrangements of planar lines
, arXiv.

2019 March 6

Bibliography:

J. Pach and J. Törőcsik, Some geometric applications of Dilworth’s theorem
, DCG 12(1):1-7, 1994.

Géza Tóth, Note on Geometric Graphs
, JCT A 89(1):126-132, 2000.

2019 February 27

Dagstuhl break

2019 February 20Abstract: To complement Nabil's minicourse, I'll prove a \(1/\epsilon \log(1/\epsilon)\) type lower bound for the size of WEAK epsilon-nets for planar convex sets. The talk will be self-contained.

Bibliography:

B. Bukh, J. Matousek, and G. Nivasch, Lower bounds for weak epsilon-nets and stair-convexity
, Israel J. Math. 182, 199–228, 2011.

2018 December 11

Abstract: An r-segment hypergraph H is a hypergraph whose edges consist of r consecutive integer points on line segments in R^2. In this paper, we bound the chromatic number χ(H) and covering number τ(H) of hypergraphs in this family, uncovering several interesting geometric properties in the process. We conjecture that for r ≥ 3, the covering number τ(H) is at most (r − 1)ν(H), where ν(H) denotes the matching number of H. We prove our conjecture in the case where ν(H) = 1, and provide improved (in fact, optimal) bounds on τ(H) for r ≤ 5. We also provide sharp bounds on the chromatic number χ(H) in terms of r, and use them to prove two fractional versions of our conjecture.

Bibliogaphy:

Deborah Oliveros, Christopher O'Neill, Shira Zerbib: The geometry and combinatorics of discrete line segment hypergraphs
, arXiv.

2018 December 4

Abstract: We start from a natural coloring problem: colour some points in the plane with c colours, in a way that any fixed (top right and bottom left corners are points of the set) axis-parallel rectangle, which contains at least d points, contains a point of every colour. I will prove that for any c, d integers, there exist a point set P of the plane, so that any c-colouring of the elements of P, there is a fixed axis-parallel rectangle, which contains exactly d points, all the same colour. Moreover, the d points inside the rectangle lie in a monotonically increasing order.

2018 November 27

Abstract: Let P be a set of n points in the plane in general position. The vertices of the intersection graph of P are the pairs of P and two vertices are connected if the corresponding straight line segments intersect. We show some results about how the (compatible) exchange graph of P determines the intersection graph of P. The vertices of the exchange graph of P are the planar spanning trees on P and two vertices are connected if the corresponding trees differ in exactly two edges. In the compatible exchange graph we further require that these two edges are also non-crossing.

2018 November 20

Abstract: Consider \(n\) points in \(R^d\) and a positive integer \(m \geq 2\). If \(n \geq (m-1)(d+1)+1\), the points can always be partitioned into \(m\) subsets whose convex hulls contain a common point. This is the celebrated theorem of Tverberg, which has been the topic of many generalizations and variations since it was first proved in 1966. We formalize new versions of Tverberg's theorem where the coordinates of the points are integer. We show that the Tverberg number of \(Z^2\) is \(4m-3\). We also show new upper bounds for the Tverberg numbers of \(Z^3\) and \(Z^j \times R^k\).

Bibliogaphy:

Jesús A. De Loera, Thomas Hogan, Frédéric Meunier, Nabil Mustafa: Integer and Mixed Integer Tverberg Numbers
, arXiv.

2018 November 13

Abstract: Let G be a finite set of points in the plane. A line M is a (k,k)-line if M is determined by G, and there are at least k points of G in each of the two open half-planes bounded by M. Let f(k,k) denote the maximum size of a set G in the plane, which is not contained in a line and does not determine a (k,k)-line. We show that \(f(k,k)<=2k+O(\log\log k)\).

Bibliogaphy:

Rom Pinchasi: Lines With Many Points On Both Sides
, Discrete and Computational Geometry 30: 415-435, 2003.

2018 November 6

Abstract: We study Erdős-Szekeres-type problems for so-called \(k\)-convex point sets, a recently introduced notion that naturally extends the concept of convex position. A finite set \(S\) of points in the plane is \)k\)-convex if \(S\) is a vertex set of a simple polygon that is intersected by every line in at most \(k\) connected components. We address several open problems about \(k\)-convex point sets. In particular, we extend the famous Erdős-Szekeres Theorem by showing that, for every fixed \(k \in \mathbb{N}\), every set of \(n\) points in the plane in general position (with no three collinear points) contains a \(k\)-convex subset of size at least \(\Omega(\log^k{n})\). We also show that there are arbitrarily large \(3\)-convex sets of \(n\) points in the plane in general position with no (\(1\)-)convex subset of size larger than \(c \log{n}\) for some constant \(c\). This gives a solution to a problem posed by Aichholzer et al. This is joint work with Sujoy Bhore, Leonardo Martínez-Sandoval, and Pavel Valtr.

2018 October 30

Fall break

2018 October 23

National Holiday

2018 October 16

Abstract: A finite set X in some Euclidean space is called Ramsey if for any k a monochromatic copy of X appears in any k-colouring of a sufficiently high dimensional Euclidean space. A long-standing conjecture claims that X is Ramsey if and only if it can be embedded into the surface of a sphere. It is known that any Ramsey set is indeed spehrical, but all our examples for Ramsey sets so far also satisfy the stronger condition of transitivity. Therefore we propose the alternative conjecture that X is Ramsey if and only if it is transitive. We show that this new conjecture is different from the old one and that it reduces to a purely combinatorial statement.

Bibliogaphy:

Imre Leader, Paul A. Russell, Mark Walters: Transitive Sets in Euclidean Ramsey Theory
, J. Comb. Theory Ser. A 119, 382-396 (2012).

2018 October 9

Abstract: We study the problem of how to breakup many point sets in Rd into smaller parts using a few splitting (shared) hyperplanes. This problem is related to the classical Ham-Sandwich Theorem. We provide a logarithmic approximation to the optimal solution using the greedy algorithm for submodular optimization.

Bibliogaphy:

Sariel Har-Peled, Mitchell Jones: Few Cuts Meet Many Point Sets
, arXiv.

2018 October 2

Abstract: For any n and k, we show that any n point set has \(O(nk^{1/3})\) k-sets.

Bibliogaphy:

T. K. Dey, Improved bounds for planar k-sets and related problems
, Discrete and Computational Geometry 19: 373–382, 1998.

2018 September 25

Abstract: For any n and k, we construct an n point set with \(\Omega(n2^\sqrt{\log k})\) k-sets.

Bibliogaphy:

Géza Tóth: Point sets with many k-sets
, Discrete and Computational Geometry 26:187-194, 2001.

2018 September 18

Abstract: I'll present a surprising connection between the maximum number of sets separable from an n point set by lines, and the maximum number of possible turns an x-monotone path can make in an arrangement of n lines. I'll follow this 10 year-old paper, but it's worth mentioning that most results have been independently rediscovered in this summer's Emlektabla workshop.

Bibliography:

Rom Pinchasi, Günter Rote: On the maximum size of an anti-chain of linearly separable sets and convex pseudo-discs
, Israel Journal of Mathematics, 172(1), 337–348 (2009).

2018 May 8
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Balázs Keszegh: New results about coloring intersection hypergraphs
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2018 May 1

Holiday

2018 April 24

Cancelled because of Dani Nagy's defense in Északi Tömb 0.100A from 14:30

2018 April 17

More thinking together about unit-distance graphs

2018 April 10
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Tamás Hubai: The chromatic number of the plane is at least 5
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2018 April 3

Spring break

2018 March 27
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Péter Ágoston: Rollercoasters and Caterpillars
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2018 March 20
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Dániel Lenger: Conflict-Free Coloring of Intersection Graphs
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2018 March 13
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Dániel Korándi (EPFL): On the Turán number of ordered forests
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2018 March 6
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Dömötör Pálvölgyi: Hadwiger-Debrunner (p,q)r property
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2018 February 27
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Tamás Hubai: Sublinear extensions of polygons
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2018 February 20
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Gábor Damásdi (HUJI): Conical partitions of point sets
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Bibliogaphy:

Rajiv Raman, Saurabh Ray: Planar Support for Non-piercing Regions and Applications
, ESA 2018, 14 pages.

2018 May 1

Holiday

2018 April 24

Cancelled because of Dani Nagy's defense in Északi Tömb 0.100A from 14:30

2018 April 17

More thinking together about unit-distance graphs

2018 April 10

Abstract: We present a recent claimed family of finite unit-distance graphs in the plane that are not 4-colourable, thereby improving the lower bound of the Hadwiger-Nelson problem. After this, we will discuss possible simplifications of the problem in a research Jam session.

Bibliogaphy:

Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey: The chromatic number of the plane is at least 5.

2018 April 3

Spring break

2018 March 27

Abstract: A rollercoaster is a sequence of real numbers for which every maximal contiguous monotonic subsequence has length at least three. We will show that every sequence of n distinct real numbers contains a rollercoaster of length at least [(n+1)/2] for n>7, and a linear time algorithm for computing such a rollercoaster. We will also show an O(n log n) algorithm for finding a longest increasing subsequence and a maximal length rollercoaster. The other topic of the lecture will be caterpillars which are trees such that deleting the leaves gives a path, called the spine. A top-view caterpillar is one of degree 4 such that the two leaves adjacent to each vertex lie on opposite sides of the spine. The results on rollercoasters helps finding a planar drawing of every n-node top-view caterpillar on every set of (25/3)n points in the plane, such that each edge is an orthogonal path with one bend.

2018 March 20

Abstract: A conflict-free k-coloring of a graph G = (V,E) assigns one of k different colors to some of the vertices such that, for every vertex v, there is a color that is assigned to exactly one vertex among v and v's neighbors. Such colorings have applications in wireless networking, robotics, and geometry, and are well studied in graph theory. Here we study the conflict-free coloring of geometric intersection graphs. We demonstrate that the intersection graph of n geometric objects without fatness properties and size restrictions may have conflict-free chromatic number in Ω(logn/loglogn) and in Ω(√ log n) for disks or squares of different sizes; it is known for general graphs that the worst case is in Θ(log^2 n). For unit-disk intersection graphs, we prove that it is NP-complete to decide the existence of a conflict-free coloring with one color; we also show that six colors always suffice, using an algorithm that colors unit disk graphs of restricted height with two colors. We conjecture that four colors are sufficient, which we prove for unit squares instead of unit disks. For interval graphs, we establish a tight worst-case bound of two.

Bibliogaphy:

Sándor P. Fekete, Phillip Keldenich: Conflict-Free Coloring of Intersection Graphs
, ISAAC 2017: 31:1-31:12.

2018 March 13

Abstract: An ordered graph H is a graph with a linear ordering on its vertex set. The corresponding Turán problem, first studied by Pach and Tardos, asks for the maximum number \(ex_{<}(n,H)\) of edges in an ordered graph on n vertices that does not contain H as an ordered subgraph. It is known that \(ex_{<}(n,H)> n^{1+ε}\) for some positive \(\epsilon=\epsilon(H)\) unless H is a forest that has a bipartition \(V_1\cup V_2\) such that \(V_1\) totally precedes \(V_2\) in the ordering. Making progress towards a conjecture of Pach and Tardos, we prove that \(ex_{<}(n,H)=n^ {1+o(1)}\) holds for all such forests that are "degenerate" in a certain sense. This class includes every forest for which an \(n^{1+o(1)}\) upper bound was previously known, as well as new examples. Our proof is based on a density-increment argument.

Bibliogaphy:

Dániel Korándi, Gábor Tardos, István Tomon and Craig Weidert: On the Turán number of ordered forests
, Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics, 61, 773-779 (2017).

2018 March 6

Abstract: Say that a family of sets satisfies the (p,q)r property if for any p members of the family, at least r of the {p choose q} q-tuples intersect. The Alon-Kleitman (p,q) theorem says that if a family of d-dimensional convex sets has the (p,q)1 property for some q>=d+1, then there are HDd(p,q) points that meet all members of the family. Earlier this theorem was known as the Hadwiger-Debrunner (p,q) conjecture; Hadwiger and Debrunner could only prove the (much easier) case of q>p(d-1)/d+1 (and q>=d+1), in which case HDd(p,q)<=p-q+1 holds. Montejano and Soberon showed that the same upper bound holds for families satisfying the (p,q)r property for r>{p choose q} - {p-d+1 choose q-d+1}, i.e., HDd(p,q)r<=p-q+1. We show that this inequality also holds for much smaller r's as well, already for r>p^{-q/2d} {p \choose q}. The proof uses bootstrapping, a recent upper bound on HDd(p,q) and Kalai’s Upper Bound Theorem for convex sets.

Bibliogaphy:

Chaya Keller, Shakhar Smorodinsky: On piercing numbers of families satisfying the (p,q)r property
, Computational Geometry, 2018, in press.

2018 February 27

Abstract: Every convex n-gon is a projection of a polytope with o(n) facets.

Bibliogaphy:

Yaroslav Shitov: Sublinear extensions of polygons

2018 February 20

Abstract: Mass partition theorems have been extensively studied in recent decades. Conical partitions have been mainly considered in the planar case, but some higher dimensional results have been obtained by Vrecica and Živaljevic, and Makeev. The proof of mass partition theorems usually follows the configuration space/test map procedure or some degree theoretic method, both of which heavily rely on topological results. This is especially true for results in higher dimensions, where our combinatorial tools are limited. We show a completely combinatorial proof for the discrete version of a theorem of Vrecica and Živaljevic concerning conical partitions.

2017 December 12
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Balázs Keszegh: Coloring intersection hypergraphs of pseudo-disks
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2017 December 5
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András Csépai: Topological Hyper-Graphs
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2017 November 28
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Péter Ágoston: Online Conflict-Free Colouring for Intervals
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2017 November 21
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Zoltán Nagy: A proof of the Szemerédi-Trotter theorem by using polynomials
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2017 November 14
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Máté Vizer: Density of range capturing hypergraphs
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2017 November 7

Fall break

2017 October 31

Fall break

2017 October 24
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Gábor Damásdi (HUJI): Helly-type theorems
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2017 October 17
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Radoslav Fulek (IST Austria): The orientable genus and orientable \(Z_2\)-genus are not the same
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2017 October 10
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Viktória Földvári: On k-intersecting curves and related problems
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2017 October 3
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Tamás Hubai: Obstacle representation of graphs
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2017 September 26
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Géza Tóth: Complexity of string graphs
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2017 September 19
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Dömötör Pálvölgyi: About small pseudo-disks
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Abstract: We prove that the intersection hypergraph of a family of n pseudo-disks with respect to another family of pseudo-disks admits a proper coloring with 4 colors and a conflict-free coloring with O(logn) colors. Along the way we prove that the respective Delaunay-graph is planar. We also prove that the intersection hypergraph of a family of n regions with linear union complexity with respect to a family of pseudo-disks admits a proper coloring with constant many colors and a conflict-free coloring with O(logn) colors. Our results serve as a common generalization and strengthening of many earlier results, including ones about proper and conflict-free coloring points with respect to pseudo-disks, coloring regions of linear union complexity with respect to points and coloring disks with respect to disks.

Bibliography:

Balázs Keszegh: Coloring intersection hypergraphs of pseudo-disks

2017 December 5

Abstract: Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A topological hyper-graph G on the set of points of P is a collection of simple closed curves in the plane that avoid the points of P. Each of these curves is called an edge of G, and the points of P are called the vertices of G. We provide bounds on the number of edges of topological hyper-graphs in terms of the number of their vertices under various restrictions assuming the set of edges is a family of pseudo-circles.

Bibliogaphy:

Sarit Buzaglo, Rom Pinchasi, Günter Rote: Topological Hypergraphs
, in: Pach J. (eds) Thirty Essays on Geometric Graph Theory. Springer, New York, NY, pp 71-81, 2013.

2017 November 28

Abstract: Let us call a colouring of a set of points in R^d conflict-free for some family Q (for example Q can be the set of all disks in R^d) if for every S∈Q there is a colour that is used exactly once inside S. We are discussing algorithms which give a colouring for point sets on R when the points are added one by one, and all of them should be coloured immediately upon insertion in such a way that the colouring remains conflict-free with respect to the intervals of R all the time. The goal is to minimize the number of colours used.

Bibliogaphy:

Ke Chen, Amos Fiat, Haim Kaplan, Meital Levy, Jiří Matoušek, Elchanan Mossel, János Pach, Micha Sharir, Shakhar Smorodinsky, Uli Wagner,
and Emo Welzl: Online Conflict-Free Coloring for Intervals
, SIAM J. Comput., 36(5), 1342-1359 (2006).

2017 November 21

Abstract: The celebrated Szemerédi-Trotter Theorem provides a good upper bound on the incidences of a given planar point set P and line set L in terms of |P| and |L|. We present a new proof due to Matousek which is based on a polynomial lemma, which enable us to construct bivariate low-degree polynomials whose nullset partition arbitrary point set into small classes.

2017 November 14

Abstract: I will talk about the following result of Axenovich and Ueckerdt: let X be a finite set of points of the plane, S be a compact subset of the plane and k>=2. Let H(X,S,k) be that k-uniform hypergraph on X, whose edges are those k-subsets of X, that can be captured by a homothetic copy of S (i.e. has the form X \cap S', for some homothetic copy S' of S). We give an upper bound on the cardinality of the edges of this hypergraph.

Bibliogaphy:

M. Axenovich, T Ueckerdt: Density of range capturing hypergraphs
, Journal of Computational Geometry 7 (2016).

2017 November 7

Fall break

2017 October 31

Fall break

2017 October 24

Abstract: I will present several Helly type theorems, and generalizations of these. Helly's theorem deals with a family of convex sets in R^d where every d+1 have non-empty intersection, and concludes non-empty intersection for the whole family. We will consider what happens if we ask for intersections with large volume, or intersections with large inscribed ellipsoids. We will also discuss the colorful versions of these theorems.

2017 October 17

Abstract: The (orientable) \(Z_2\)-genus of a graph G is the minimum g such that G has a drawing on the surface of (orientable) genus g, in which every pair of non-adjacent edges cross an even number of times. We find a graph of orientable genus 5 and orientable \(Z_2\)-genus 4, which disproves a conjecture of Schaefer and Stefankovic (2013) predicting that the orientable genus and \(Z_2\)-genus are the same for every graph. We also discuss their relaxed version of the conjecture predicting that there exists a function f such that an (orientable) genus of every graph with \(Z_2\)-genus g is at most f(g). In particular, we prove that the (orientable) genus of every graph in the family consisting of Kuratowski minors, i.e., copies of \(K_5\) or \(K_{3,3}\) glued on 0,1, or 2 vertice and \(K_{3,k}\)'s; and projective grids, is upper bounded by a function of its \(Z_2\)-genus. This in turn implies that the statement of the relaxed conjecture follows from an unpublished result claimed by Robertson and Seymour characterizing graphs that are not embeddable on a given surface. The talk will be self-contained, and area related definitions will be given during the talk. Therefore no previous knowledge of the theory of graph embeddings on surfaces is required. This is a joint work with Jan Kynčl.

Bibliography:

Radoslav Fulek, Jan Kynčl: Counterexample to an extension of the Hanani-Tutte theorem on the surface of genus 4

2017 October 10

Abstract: Let P be a set of n points in the plane and C a family of simple closed curves avoiding P. Assume that the intersection of any two discs bounded by curves of C is connected and that every two curves intersect at most k times. We consider a family F that consists of the point sets surrounded by curves of C, and give bounds for the number of l-size subsets and the VC-dimension of F.

Bibliography:

Sarit Buzaglo, Ron Holzman, Rom Pinchasi: On k-intersecting curves and related problems
, SoCG '08: 79-84, 2008.

2017 October 3

Abstract: For a graph G, consider an arrangement of its vertices in the plane along with some polygonal obstacles in such a way that two vertices can see each other if and only if they are adjacent in the graph. Let obs(G) denote the minimum achievable number of obstacles. We give an upper bound of O(n log n) in general and O(n) for graphs with bounded chromatic number.

Bibliography:

Martin Balko, Josef Cibulka, Pavel Valtr: Drawing graphs using a small number of obstacles
, Graph Drawing 2015: 360-372. Springer, 2015.

2017 September 26

Abstract: A graph is a string graph if it is the intersection graph of strings (curves) in the plane. The complexity of a string graph G is the minimum number of crossings in a string representation of G. We give an exponential upper bound on the complexity of a string graph of m edges. We also give a construction of a string graph of exponential complexity.

Bibliogaphy:

Jan Kratochvíl and Jiří Matoušek: String graphs requiring exponential representations
, Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B 53.1 (1991): 1-4.

Marcus Schaefer and Daniel Stefankovic: Decidability of string graphs
, Proceedings of the thirty-third annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing. ACM, 2001.

2017 September 19

Abstract: We show that there is an absolute constant c ≤ 156 such that in every finite family F of pseudo-discs in the plane one can find a member D ∈ F such that among all of the pseudo-discs in F intersecting D there are at most c pairwise disjoint sets.

Bibliography:

Rom Pinchasi: A Finite Family of Pseudodiscs Must Include a “Small” Pseudodisc
, SIAM J. Discrete Math., 28(4), 1930–1934 (2014).